Soil survey applied to analyze the plots before construction; this is done to measure characteristics such as the state of the underground layers, depth, type of geological structure, electrical resistance, foundation soil. The main purpose is to understand the behavior of a building in the face of an earthquake with these variables.
In line with the survey researches, the rock structure of the region and the sensitivity of the rocks to earthquakes are measured. It is also determined whether there is a fault line in the region. For this reason, the soil survey report is of vital importance for the projects to be built on the ground.
It is possible to predict the effect of loads that may occur during an earthquake because of researches obtained with the ground survey report. What materials should be used before the construction begins, and the most important needs related to soil and foundation are understood because of these researches.
We do the ground surveys in every project. After inspection of the underground suitability of the planned project is done by geology experts, the ground survey report is prepared as a result of the researches. This report gives our engineers the information about the conditions under which the foundation of the construction should be.
According to this report, the thickness of the iron and the concrete standard to be used in the foundation are determined.
Taking stones, soil, rubble, iron and other materials from the construction area and shaping the area is generally called excavation. The excavation process is carried out by shaping the rocky, sandy land with stone soil, transportation, scraping, softening, shredding methods as desired.
FILLING AND COMPRESSION
To make various foundations more stable, slope removals, and a flatter land if needed, the process of filling empty spaces is applied by using materials such as crash stones or soil. This filled material does not remain as it was laid in the pits or foundations, another operation is required for the superstructure to be fixed on a hard ground. This process is called fill compression.
Filling compaction, which is one of a series of studies carried out during the construction process, is achieved by filling the ground with soil and rock fragments at a certain rate.
At this stage, which is the first step of the physical construction work, we make the natural ground of the foundation area more solid by performing the filling and compaction process, which is the process of laying various hard rocks on the land and pressing them with the help of rollers, after the excavation according to the foundation type and the removal of the material.
Rough concrete is low-dose non-ferrous concrete. It has entered our language from the Dutch words grub (rough) and concrete. It is used as filling, leveling and sub-base concrete where durability is not important. Concretes containing more than 2% of steel reinforcement are considered reinforced concrete, and concretes containing less are considered lean concrete.
The purpose of pouring lean concrete is to cut the connection between the ground and the foundation and to prevent the foundation reinforced concrete damagıng from water or chemicals from the ground
In addition, the lean concrete is poured in order to create the smooth surface necessary for laying the reinforcement.
The walls that are built with the purpose of slipping across the sloping land or the erosion of the water floor are called retaining or abutment walls. These structures, called retaining walls, carry the lateral thrust forces with their own weight. The retaining wall consists of a base that will be an suffıcient support against horizontal movements and a built-in body. The lower place at the front of the sole is called the heel. Retaining wall type, selected by economic comparison depending on height. In general, As a rule, stone or concrete retaining walls are made up to 3.5–4 m high, and reinforced concrete retaining walls are made higher. The retaining wall has a foundation similar to single foundations and a body with built-in cantilever. This type of retaining walls can be built up to a height of about 8 m.
At the points where we place our projects, we prevent negative possibilities such as landslides or collapses by combining retaining walls on the types of soil we deem necessary.
A solid foundation is a foundation system that covers the foundation of a building as a whole. For this reason, the construction equally transfers its weight to all parts of the ground and ensures the settlement form. This system is called the raft solid foundation system. The reasons for choosing this foundation are listed below
1. In case the weight on the building is too high: If the weight on the building is high and/or the number of floors in the building is large, which may exceed the strength of the soil,
2. Low bearing capacity of the soil: The weakness of the soil, independent of the structural weight on the soil or damaged, makes nesscessary the raft solid foundation to be used.
Sometimes the ground is so weak that the foundation structure may not be enough. This is especially noticeable on the ground, where there is a possibility of soil liquefaction. On such soils, a pile foundation system is used.
3. In case of uneven distribution of consrtuction weights on the soil: If the construction weights are transferred to the ground unevenly, that is, the construction weights are collected in one of the parts of the foundation, or if the individual parts of the consrtuction differ from each other in weights, a raft solid foundation is made. Sometimes damage to the consrtuction of these various locations is prevented by joints.
4. Difference of foundation soil within itself: The probability that the soil will have the same characteristics on all sides under the foundation of the building is almost negligible. However,the question is how big this difference is. If this difference is small, perhaps they can be connected with strip foundations. However, if this difference is large, to prevent various settlements caused by this difference a raft solid foundation should be made.
5. In case if the foundation of the building is below the ground water level: In such cases, the most important issue is the impermeability and ability to resist the floatation of the ground water level. It will be easier to provide impermeability and increase the ability to resist floation by increasing the weight of the building by making a solid foundation.
- It is known that a raft solid foundation gives a great advantage against earthquakes.
A raft solid foundation moves with the constructure in case of an earthquake and largely prevents damage to the consrtuctions.
Taking into account the geological location of our projects, we use the type of foundation, which has the strongest earthquake protection and gives the construction great strength.
Raft Iron Bonding
While raft iron bonding, first iron bars are laid on the ground with an interval of 1 meter, then the bars laid parallel to the laid bars with an interval of 25 cm form the lattice frame. Looking at a static project, additional iron bars are attached to the places where the weight on the building is higher, ensuring durability.
The iron fittings are cleaned of dirt, oil and rust before using. Spreading, housing, tension and compression fittings and stirrups are properly connected and placed in place. The reinforcement must not move during the pouring of concrete, the reinforcement is suspended so that the necessary layer of concrete is formed around the rods. Foundation reinforcement is not laid directly on the ground, at least 50 mm from the ground, depending on the type of soil, thick concrete or insulating material is laid.
Column heights; According to the ground survey report, the iron thickness to be used is often connected to the column points specified in the project.
This is called the formation of the main skeleton of the column. The more iron is forged, the stronger the column will be.
After joining the reinforced concrete structures, the entire foundation floor is poured with C30 grade concrete.
1 square centimeter of class C30 concrete is able to withstand a load of 300 kg, and concrete of a structure that will be produced specifically in seismic zones must have class C30.
C30 ready mixed concrete is a type of concrete known for its seismic resistance in very high buildings and we use C30 and C35 ready mixed concrete in our projects.
The ground floor refers to the part of the building that is below ground level (ground level, entrance level), but not buried in the ground. This section can be the floor, the plinth on which the building stands, or simply the surface of the basement. The purpose of creating the ground level of a building above natural soil is to protect the building from natural influences, humidity, water, etc. It is not necessary for every building to have insolation, it is done in cases where local conditions require it.
The ground floor curtains; This is done to protect the building from external influences such as moisture and precipitation, and to keep the ground level above natural ground.
Although the meaning of the word suggests that it was built to prevent floods, it cannot be said that it’s the only purpose.
It helps to protect a building built over natural soil from floods that will occur under the influence of precipitation
In buildings, waterproofing is carried out in areas such as foundations, basements, exteriors, roofs, bathrooms, balconies and terraces.
Various methods are used here. To insulate foundations a method called bonding is used.
In this method, 2 layers of the membrane sheets are laid under the foundation and welded together.
The surfaces of the basement lay and the basement lay erected on the foundation are also covered with membranes.
Thus, the outer surfaces of the sheets from the bottom of the building to ground level are connected.
Waterproofing is made continuous from the bottom of the foundation to the side faces of the building.
COLUMNS AND Beams
The bearing system of a reinforced concrete element consists of floors, beams, columns and/or foundation joints.
Columns are the main elements of reinforced concrete structures.
They are built in layers in building-type structures. Typically, the rebar has an overlap on each floor. It is desirable that the crop connection is located in the middle of the column, where the moment is small. In this case, the clamp length is sufficient for a flat clamp. According to TS500, clamping is carried out at the bottom of the column. We manufacture our columns in accordance with TS500 standards.
Buildings need supports to stand.
They need a covering (slabs) to accommodate people and create space, and horizontal bearings (beams) to withstand horizontal strikes such as earthquakes.
The vertical support legs are called columns. The columns connecting columns horizontally and standing horizontally are called beams, slabs standing on columns and beams are called slabs.
We get the strongest columns and beams by placing metal inside the columns in our projects.
The process of pouring concrete into a mold at the right place using a pump or other equipment after it has been delivered to the construction site by a concrete mixer truck while maintaining its marketability is called "pouring concrete".
Types of concrete used;
1 square centimeter of C30 concrete can withstand a load of 300 kilograms, it is used in the construction of buildings in seismic zones.
Class C35 concrete is one of the strongest concretes in use today.
1 square centimeter of C35 concrete can withstand a load of 325 kilograms
C35 concrete buildings are among the constructions with the highest resistance to earthquakes and other natural or man-made disasters.
As we mentioned earlier, we use C30 and C35 ready-mixed concrete in our constructions.
To obtain high efficiency from pouring concrete; We pay special attention to ensure that the molds are strong and airtight.
Hollow-tile floor slab
Hollow-tile floor slab is a one or two direction joist floor system consists of a light material between joists known as hollow tiles. It has large but thin beams. At the top, there is reinforced concrete slab. The joists with that are placed one or two direction, has the same thickness of thin and large beams (and also the concrete slab ceiling). At the end, after concreting and removal of molds, the concrete slab(ceiling) seems flat with no beams visible, has low concrete molding cost and also has various applicaton easinesses.
In hollow-tile floor slabs, leaving a gap between the rods or filling them with an aggregate that is very light in comparison to the weight of the concrete ensures that the weight is light compared to the large span that needs to be covered. With ribbed flooring, a gap is left between the rods. As a result, the weight of the slab is reduced, but the cost of formwork, plastering and labor increases as the floor area increases. To avoid these negative situations, the gap between the rods of the floor is filled with non-bearing fillers (polystyrene, briquette, aerated concrete, etc.)
This type of flooring is widely used from an architectural point of view, as it makes efficient use of the floor height, has an aesthetic appearance and gives freedom in interior design. Depending on the intended use of the building, floor space may be required due to plumbing or architectural requirements. In hollow slabs, these gaps can easily be left. In addition, the use of starfor in hollow blocks contributes to the sound and heat insulation of the floor.
The hollow-tile floor slab is used to create floors and ceilings suitable for the architectural designs in our buildings; We use the Uc profile for the aesthetic placement of electrical components inside the apartments.
The end profile is a partition on the plasterboard part. Due to its flexible structure, it has properties that increase resistance to various dynamic influences. It is about 9 times lighter than a brick wall. Therefore, it has less risk of adverse situations by increasing the flexibility of the building, especially during natural disasters such as earthquakes. Ideally combined with types of plasterboard partitions. Thus, in addition to its flexibility, it also provides excellent insulation against sound, heat and fire.
At the stage of applying the screed, we work with high-quality materials, the best devices and teams of specialists. Under these conditions, a successful result due to the use of a screed is very high. The screed process is one of the isolation processes performed on dried or poured concrete. This makes it easy to provide a level of protection. It also gives an aesthetic appearance.
At the stage of protecting the floor from adverse external factors, applying a screed is one of the most effective ways.
Insulation are construction methods that help to protect buildings from certain adverse. This is a barrier process that is widely used to prevent losses occurring, in particular, from inside buildings to outside or from outside to inside. The insulation solves the problems with sound, heat, fire, plumbing and water.
THE TYPES OF INSULATION
- Thermal insulation: preventing energy loss in buildings, protecting buildings from extreme heat, etc. We apply the insulation technique used for these purposes to our buildings.
-Soundproofing: especially in buildings located in central areas or in opera, cinema, etc. We provide soundproofing to solve the sound problems of buildings.
-Fire-resistant insulation: These are precautions against fire that present a hazard. We ensure your safety by choosing the right insulation material that is both protective and preventive.
- Pipe insulation: This is the protection that all installation infrastructures of buildings must include. This is a necessary measure to ensure that the building does not rot from the inside and has a long life, and we insulate all our installations.
- Waterproofing: This is a type of insulation that uses methods of protecting the load-bearing systems of buildings from all forms of water erosion. In addition to outdoor applications such as rooftops, swimming pools and balconies, we also waterproof building foundations and elevator shafts.
It is a porous spongy amorphous substance of volcanic origin with an average specific gravity of 500 kg/m³. Low density due to numerous voids in its natural structure; It has heat and sound resistance. They are obtained by mixing pumice aggregate, from which quartz sand, cement and water are separated in accordance with the rules, and then pressed under high pressure in machines. Pumice brick is a type of brick that is made up of harder rock than ordinary brick, hardens when wet, has less deformation, and is difficult to break.
25 foot cinder block
We prefer cinder blocks in the outside walls, the only thing that changes is the size of the bricks on the outside walls. In the exterior masonry we use 25 foot cinder blocks.
10 foot cinder blocks.
Due to the durability of cinder blocks, in our constructions we contribute to building strength by using 10ft cinder blocks on inside walls.
Thin shear walls that provide the necessary heat and sound insulation must be strong and reliable.
They must be nailed and withstand the necessary cantilever weight, that is, they must act as a support for attachments and furniture.
We build kitchen and bathroom partitions, interior walls, taking into account the increased requirements for moisture resistance and hygiene and sound insulation in residential premises.
Load retention in buildings is of paramount importance.
These are horizontal elements used both to ensure the continuity of the wall, and to facilitate the transport of joinery, located on the top of doors and windows, which are one of the load-bearing elements. They can be considered as simple beam structures.
Ready-to-use lintel is a reinforced concrete building element for door and window openings in walls. The lintel is produced in different sizes according to the needs. Used for walls construction. Lento, which closes door and window openings in walls, is a ready-to-use product. Mold, iron, etc. are easy to install during the construction of the walls, without waiting for production. Inside the lintel is a double row of steel mesh.
Filling The wall
It is a healthy and natural finished gypsum plaster product that can be applied directly to surfaces such as concrete, aerated concrete, bricks and cinder blocks. Because of its lightness and useful structure, we cover our walls with gypsum plaster. This saves the building from excessive load and has a positive effect on the strength of the foundation
We use black plaster as the outer filler because of its resistance to adverse weather conditions and of the structure durability. Thus, our constructions become resistant to all kinds of adverse weather conditions.
Seam roof is a metal roofing system that is applied on roofs with a minimum slope of 5%, can easily adapt to all traditional or modern architecture, and exhibits striking and lively lines. The most secure and first preferred clamping system in metal roofs is the metal coil (titanium window, aluminum, sheet metal, copper) shaped with the roof clamping machine at the construction site, and manufactured in the desired length.
In our projects, we use seam roofing systems made of steel materials due to their aesthetic design and durability, taking into account the generally hot and changeable climate of the Mediterranean region.